Template:Use Australian English Template:Infobox Australian place Maralinga, in the remote western areas of South Australia, was the site, measuring about 3,300 square kilometres (1,300 sq mi) in area, of British nuclear tests in the mid-1950s.
In January 1985 native title was granted to the Maralinga Tjarutja, a southern Pitjantjatjara Aboriginal Australian people, over some land, but around the same time, the McClelland Royal Commission identified significant residual nuclear contamination at some sites. Under an agreement between the governments of the United Kingdom and Australia, efforts were made to clean up the site before the Maralinga people resettled on the land in 1995. The main community, which includes a school, is Oak Valley. There are still concerns that some of the ground is still contaminated, despite two attempts at cleanup.
Nuclear tests and cleanup
Maralinga was the scene of UK nuclear testing and was contaminated with radioactive waste in the 1950s and early 1960s. Maralinga was surveyed by Len Beadell in the early 1950s, and followed the survey of Emu Field, which was further north and where the first two tests were conducted.
On 27 September 1956, Operation Buffalo commenced at Maralinga, as Emu Field was found to be too remote a site. The operation consisted of the testing of four fission bombs. Two were set atop towers, one at ground level, and one released by a Royal Air Force Vickers Valiant bomber from a height of Template:Cvt. This was the first launching of a British atomic weapon from an aircraft.
Operation Antler followed in 1957. Antler was designed to test the triggering mechanisms of the weapons. Three tests began in September. The first two tests were conducted from towers; the last was suspended from balloons. Yields from the weapons were 1 kiloton, 6 kilotons and 25 kilotons respectively.
Participants in the test programme were prohibited from disclosing details of its undertakings. Risking incarceration, nuclear veteran Avon Hudson became a whistle-blower and spoke out to the media in the 1970s. His disclosures helped pave the way towards a public inquiry into the tests and their legacy.
The McClelland Royal Commission of 1984–1985 identified significant residual contamination at some sites. British and Australian servicemen were purposely exposed to fallout from the blasts, to study radiological effects. The local Aboriginal people have claimed they were poisoned by the tests and, in 1994, the Australian Government reached a compensation settlement with Maralinga Tjarutja of $13.5 million in settlement of all claims in relation to the nuclear testing. Previously many of these facts were kept from the public.
1985 native title handback
In January 1985, the land was handed over to the traditional owners, the Aboriginal people of the area (Aṉangu) who are a southern branch of the Pitjantjatjara people, under the Maralinga Tjarutja Land Rights Act 1984. They were granted freehold title, and the right to developmental funds from the State and Federal governments. They completed a move back into Oak Valley in March 1985, a new community approximately 128 kilometres (80 mi) NNW of the original township of Maralinga.
Under an agreement between the governments of the United Kingdom and Australia in 1995, efforts were made to clean up the site, being completed in 1995. Tonnes of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium and uranium were buried in two trenches about 16 metres (52 ft) deep. The effectiveness of the cleanup has been disputed on a number of occasions.
Despite the governments of Australia and the UK paying for two decontamination programmes, concerns have been expressed that some areas of the Maralinga test sites are still contaminated 10 years after being declared "clean", as late as 2011.
It was found in 2021 that radioactive ("hot") particles persist in the soil, after international multidisciplinary team of scientists studied the results produced by a machine at Monash University that is capable of slicing open tiny samples using a beam of high-energy ions only a nanometre wide. The analysis of the results suggested that natural processes in the desert environment could bring about the slow release of plutonium over a long period. This plutonium is likely to be absorbed by wildlife at Maralinga.
- Temperature from 6.5 °C (43.7 °F) in winter to 44.7 °C (112.5 °F) in summer; overnight minimum of −3 °C (27 °F) in winter.
- Rainfall average 0.75–1.25 millimetres (0.030–0.049 in)
Maralinga Tjarutja, a May 2020 television documentary film directed by Larissa Behrendt and made by Blackfella Films for ABC Television, tells the story of the people of Maralinga. It was deliberately broadcast around the same time that the drama series Operation Buffalo was on, to give voice to the Indigenous people of the area and show how it disrupted their lives. Screenhub gave it 4.5 stars, calling it an "excellent documentary". The film shows the resilience of the Maralinga Tjarutja people, in which the elders "reveal a perspective of deep time and an understanding of place that generates respect for the sacredness of both", their ancestors having lived in the area for millennia. Despite the callous disregard for their occupation of the land shown by the British and Australians involved in the testing, the people have continued to fight for their rights to look after the contaminated land.
- Operation Buffalo
- "Summary of findings of the Royal Commission". Retrieved 6 October 2006.
- "Maralinga rehabilitation project". Australian Department of Education, Science and Training. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2008.
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- "Minister backs Maralinga clean-up". The Sydney Morning Herald. 7 March 2003. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
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- Ladd, Mike (23 March 2020). "The lesser known history of the Maralinga nuclear tests - and what it's like to stand at ground zero". ABC News (Radio National). Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- "Maralinga students welcome new school". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). 4 May 2003. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
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- Parkinson, A., (2007), Maralinga: Australia's Nuclear Waste Cover-up, ABC Books, Sydney, ISBN 978-0-7333-2108-5
- Jim Green, "Nuclear waste and indigenous rights", Perspective, ABC Radio National, broadcast 7 February 2008, accessed 9 March 2008
- Philip Dorling. "Ten years after the all-clear, Maralinga is still toxic", Sydney Morning Herald 12 November 2011, accessed 12 Nov 2011
- Etschmann, Barbara; Brugger, Joel; Wong, Vanessa (21 May 2021). "We sliced open radioactive particles from soil in South Australia and found they may be leaking plutonium". The Conversation. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
- "Pu particles from nuclear testing more complex than previously thought". EurekAlert!. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 21 May 2021. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
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- "When the dust settles, culture remains: Maralinga Tjarutja". indigenous.gov.au. Australian Government. 22 May 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
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- Campbell, Mel (11 June 2020). "TV Review: Maralinga Tjarutja paints a full picture". screenhub Australia. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- Broderick, Mick (4 June 2020). "Sixty years on, two TV programs revisit Australia's nuclear history at Maralinga". The Conversation. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- Marsh, Walter (22 May 2020). "The story of Maralinga is much more than a period drama". The Adelaide Review. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- Parkinson, Alan 2007. Maralinga: Australia’s Nuclear Waste Cover-up
- Tame, Adrian & Robotham, F.P.J. 1982. Maralinga: British A-Bomb Australian Legacy. Fontana / Collins, Melbourne. ISBN 0-00-636391-1.
- Mattingley, Christobel; Yalata & Oak Communities. 2009. Maralinga: The Anangu Story. Allen & Unwin – a children's book about the history and culture of the region, the nuclear testing controversy and the region's original owners
- Beadell, Len 1967. Blast The Bush New Holland Publishers, Sydney. ISBN 1864367369
- Agreements, Treaties and Negotiated Settlements (ATNS) project at the Indigenous Studies Program, The University of Melbourne
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- "Fact sheet 129 – British nuclear tests at Maralinga". National Archives of Australia. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011.
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